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dictionnaire:the_morphology_of_classical_latin4 [2015/10/28 19:00]
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-These adjectives use the same casual segments as nouns of the third declension. But they are simpler than adjectives of the first declension, having only two declensions, the first for the masculine or feminine, the second for the neuter. They are therefore mentioned with only two terminations, since the masculine and the feminine are the same:   +These adjectives use the same casual segments as nouns of the third declension. But they are simpler than adjectives of the first declension, having only two declensions, the first for the masculine or feminine, the second for the neuter. They are therefore mentioned with only two terminations, since the masculine and the feminine are the same:
-            fort-is (m) and (f.), -e (n.) “robust” +
-except if they end in r, because they have then a Ø as a Nominative masculine, which is necessarily different from the feminine. Then they are mentioned with three terminations as adjectives of the first class: +
-           celer (m.), -is (f.), -e (n.) “speedy”. +
-Most of these adjectives ending in r have one or two consonants before the r, like acer, cr-is, cr-e “keen”, uolucer, cr-is, cr-e “flying”, celeber, br-is, br-e “crowded”, salūber, br-is, br-e “salubrious”, equester, tr-is, tr-e “mounted on a horse”, pedester, tr-is, tr-e “pedestrian”, siluester, tr-is, tr-e “wooded”.  +
-The remaining adjectives of the second class are any adjectives with one termination, the neuter, the masculine and the feminine of which are the same. They are nevertheless mentioned in  dictionaries with two terminations, like atrōx, ōc-is “frightful” or prūdens, nt-is “aware (of)”, but the apparent second termination is not another nominative, but a genitive which, as in the nouns of the third declension, shows the full signifier of the lexeme: thus +
-            atrox = /atrōc-s/, prūdens = /prūdent-s/  +
-with an s as allomorph of the Nominative. The following table shows the declension of the adjectives of two and one termination: +
- Masc./Fem Neut. Masc./ Fem Neut. +
-NOM. fort-is fort-e atrox atrox +
-VOC. fort–is fort-e atrox atox +
-GEN. fort–is fort-is atrōc-is atrox +
-DAT. fort–ī fort-ī atrōc-ī atrōc-ī +
-ABL. fort–ī fort–ī atrōc-ī atrōc-ī  +
-ACC. fort-em fort-e atrōc-em atrox +
-NOM. PL fort-ēs fort-ia atrōc-ēs atrōc-ia +
- VOC.PL fort-ēs fort-ia atrōc-ēs atrōc-ia +
-GEN.PL fort-ium   fort-ium atrōc-ium atrōc-ium +
-DAT.PL fort-ibus fort-ibus atrōc-ibus atrōc-ibus +
-ABL.PL fort-ibus fort-ibus atrōc-ibus atrōc-ibus +
-ACC.PL fort-īs (ēs) fort-ia atrōc-īs (es) atrōc-ia+
  
  
 +    * //fort-is// (m) and (f.), //-e// (n.) “robust”
  
  
 +except if they end in //r//, because they have then a //Ø// as a Nominative masculine, which is necessarily different from the feminine. Then they are mentioned with three terminations as adjectives of the first class:
  
  
 +    * //celer// (m.), //-is// (f.), //-e// (n.) “speedy”.
  
  
 +Most of these adjectives ending in //r// have one or two consonants before the //r//, like //acer, cr-is, cr-e// “keen”, //uolucer, cr-is, cr-e// “flying”, //celeber, br-is, br-e// “crowded”, //salūber, br-is, br-e// “salubrious”, //equester, tr-is, tr-e// “mounted on a horse”, //pedester, tr-is, tr-e// “pedestrian”, //siluester, tr-is, tr-e// “wooded”. 
  
  
 +The remaining adjectives of the second class are any adjectives with one termination, the neuter, the masculine and the feminine of which are the same. They are nevertheless mentioned in  dictionaries with two terminations, like //atrōx, ōc-is// “frightful” or //prūdens, nt-is// “aware (of)”, but the apparent second termination is not another nominative, but a genitive which, as in the nouns of the third declension, shows the full signifier of the lexeme: thus
  
  
 +    * //atrox// = /atrōc-s/, //prūdens// = /prūdent-s/
 + 
  
 + 
 +with an s as allomorph of the Nominative. The following table shows the declension of the adjectives of two and one termination:
 +
 +
 +^ ^ Masc./Fem ^ Neut. ^ Masc./ Fem ^ Neut. |
 +^NOM. | fort-is | fort-e | atrox | atrox |
 +^VOC. | fort–is | fort-e | atrox |atrox |
 +^GEN. | fort–is | fort-is | atrōc-is | atrox |
 +^DAT. | fort–ī | fort-ī | atrōc-ī | atrōc-ī |
 +^ABL. | fort–ī | fort–ī | atrōc-ī | atrōc-ī | 
 +^ACC. | fort-em | fort-e | atrōc-em | atrox |
 +^NOM. PL| fort-ēs | fort-ia | atrōc-ēs | atrōc-ia |
 +^VOC.PL | fort-ēs | fort-ia | atrōc-ēs | atrōc-ia |
 +^GEN.PL | fort-ium |fort-ium | atrōc-ium |atrōc-ium |
 +^DAT.PL | fort-ibus | fort-ibus | atrōc-ibus | atrōc-ibus |
 +^ABL.PL | fort-ibus | fort-ibus | atrōc-ibus |atrōc-ibus |
 +^ACC.PL | fort-īs (ēs) |fort-ia | atrōc-īs (es) | atrōc-ia |
 +
 +
 +
 +    * **4.3. Comparison of adjectives**
  
  
- c. Comparison of adjectives 
 In Latin, as in French, adjectives can have three degrees of meaning:  In Latin, as in French, adjectives can have three degrees of meaning: 
-• the positive, expressing simply the quality implied by the adjective, like doct-us, -a, -um “learned”,   + 
-• the comparative, introducing a comparison, which can be a superiority, a equality or an inferiority: like doctior “more learned”, tam doctus “as learned”, and minus doctus “less learned”, + 
-• the superlative, which, in French, is absolute “very learned”, or relative “the most learned”. This semantic distinction isn’t morphologically marked in Latin, both superlatives being said doct-issim-us. +    * the positive, expressing simply the quality implied by the adjective, like //doct-us, -a, -um// “learned”, 
-The comparative and superlative are, in Latin, some bound morphemes, which are added after the lexeme and form a word.+    
 +      
 +    * the comparative, introducing a comparison, which can be a superiority, a equality or an inferiority: like //doctior// “more learned”, //tam doctus// “as learned”, and //minus doctus// “less learned”, 
 +    
 +    
 +    * the superlative, which, in French, is absolute “very learned”, or relative “the most learned”. This semantic distinction isn’t morphologically marked in Latin, both superlatives being said //doct-issim-us//. 
 +    
 +    
 +    
 + The comparative and superlative are, in Latin, some bound morphemes, which are added after the lexeme and form a word. 
 + 
 The combination of the lexeme with the morpheme of comparative is declined like an adjective of the second class, and that with the morpheme of superlative, like an adjective of the first class. The combination of the lexeme with the morpheme of comparative is declined like an adjective of the second class, and that with the morpheme of superlative, like an adjective of the first class.
-         d. The morpheme of comparative is an alternating suffix -ior- and -ius, the form -ius (= [ijus]) being the phonetical realization of /-ios/, because the neutralization of the opposition /o/ ~ /u/ in final syllable closed by a /s/, and only appearing in Nominative and Accusative neuter. In all the other cases, even in the neuter, the allomorph appears     /-io:r-/, which is therefore the unmarked form of comparative; it is phonetically realized  [-ijor] because of the neutralization of the quantity opposition before another final consonant  than [s].  
-Thus, the comparative of car-us “dear” is car-ior “dearer”, of leu-is “light” is leu-ior “lighter”, of fēlix “happy” is felic-ior “happier”,  of acer, cr-is, cr-e “keen” is acr-ior “more keen”, of miser, -a, -um “wretched” is miser-ior “more wretched”, etc. 
-These compound adjectives are declined according to the third declension, the forms in    -ior- being declined like orātor, tōr-is, tōr-um, and the forms in -ius, like tempus, por-is,  
-por-um, except for the difference of quantity.   
- Comp. (m./ .f)    + Plur. Comp. (n.) + Plur. 
-Nom. doct-ior doct-ior-ēs doct-ius doct-iōr-a 
-Voc. doct-ior doct-ior-ēs doct-ius doct-iōr-a 
-Gen. doct-iōr-is doct-ior-um doctiōr-is doct-iōr-um 
-Dat. doct-iōr-ī doct-iōr-ibus doct-iōr-ī doct-iōr-ibus 
-Abl . doct-iōr-e doct-iōr-ibus doct-iōr-e doct-iōr-ibus 
-Acc. doct-iōr-em doct-iōr-es doct-ius doct-iōr-a 
  
  
  
 +    * **4.4.The morpheme of comparative** is an alternating suffix //-ior-// and //-ius//, the form //-ius// (= [ijus]) being the phonetical realization of /-ios/, because the neutralization of the opposition /o/ ~ /u/ in final syllable closed by a /s/, and only appearing in Nominative and Accusative neuter. In all the other cases, even in the neuter, the allomorph appears     /-io:r-/, which is therefore the unmarked form of comparative; it is phonetically realized  [-ijor] because of the neutralization of the quantity opposition before another final consonant  than [s].
 + 
 + 
 +
 +Thus, the comparative of //car-us// “dear” is //car-ior// “dearer”, of //leu-is// “light” is //leu-ior// “lighter”, of //fēlix// “happy” is //felic-ior// “happier”,  of //acer, cr-is, cr-e// “keen” is //acr-ior// “more keen”, of //miser, -a, -um// “wretched” is //miser-ior// “more wretched”, etc.
 +
 +
 +These compound adjectives are declined according to the third declension, the forms in   //-ior-// being declined like //orātor, tōr-is, tōr-um//, and the forms in //-ius//, like //tempus, por-is, por-um// , except for the difference of quantity.
 + 
 +
 + Declension of the comparative:
 +
 +
 +^ ^ Comp. (m./ .f) ^ + Plur. ^ Comp. (n.) ^ + Plur. | 
 +^Nom. | doct-ior | doct-ior-ēs | doct-ius | doct-iōr-a |
 +^Voc. | doct-ior | doct-ior-ēs | doct-ius | doct-iōr-a |
 +^Gen. | doct-iōr-is | doct-ior-um | doctiōr-is | doct-iōr-um |
 +^Dat. | doct-iōr-ī | doct-iōr-ibus | doct-iōr-ī | doct-iōr-ibus |
 +^Abl. | doct-iōr-e | doct-iōr-ibus | doct-iōr-e | doct-iōr-ibus |
 +^Acc. | doct-iōr-em | doct-iōr-es | doct-ius | doct-iōr-a|
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Some adjectives, which cannot be combined with this comparative suffix, use the morphem //magis// “more”, which is syntagmatically independent: //magis pius// “more pious”, //magis arduus// “higher”, //magis idoneus// “more suitable”, etc.
 +
 +
 +For other adjectives, the presence of the comparative morpheme involves necessarily an allomorph. Thus, the comparative of //bon-us// is //mel-ior// (not //*bon-ior//), of //mal-us// is //pēior// (=/pei-io:r/, pronounced [pejjor]) (not //*mal-ior//), of //magn-us// is //māior// (= /mai-io:r/, pronounced [majjor]) (not //*magn-ior//), of //paru-us// “small” is //minor// “less”, of //mult-ī// “many” is //plūr-ēs// “more”.
 +
 +
 +
 +    * **4.5. The morpheme of the superlative**
 +
 +
 +It has normally the long form //-issimus//, like //doct-issim-us// “very learned”, //cār-issim-us// “dearest”, superlative of //car-us// “dear”, //leu-issim-us// “lightest”, superlative of //leu-is, -e// “light”, //fēlic-issim-us// “happiest”, superlative of //felix// “happy”. It can have the short form without //-is//, as in //maximus// “greatest” (= /mag-sim-us/, superlative of //magn-us//), //pessim-us// “worst” (= /pes-sim-us/), and in the lexemes ending in  /r/ or /l/: //acer-rim-us// (= /akr-sim-us/, with the syllabic realization of /r/ after a consonant and before a consonant, and the rhotacismus of /s/ between two elements [vocalic] and after a morpheme border in [r]), //pulcher-rimus//, //miser-rim-us//, //ueter-rim-us// (regular superlative of //uetus, ter-is//, thus = /ueter-sim-us/) or //facil-lim-us//, //difficil-lim-us//, //simil-lim-us//,  //disimil-lim-us//, //gracil-lim-us// and //humil-lim-us// (it is the same phonological phenomenon of rhotacismus between two [vocalic] elements, but after a [vocalic] element which is an /l/.
 +
 +
 +Superlatives with //maxime// correspond to comparatives with //magis//: //maxime pius// “very pious”, //maxime arduus// “most high”, and //maxime idoneus// “most suitable“. Irregular superlatives correspond to irregular comparatives: //optim-us// “best” (//melior, bon-us//), //pes-sim-us// “worst” (//pē-ior, mal-us//), //maxim-us// “greatest” (//mā-ior, magn-us//), //minim-us// “least” (//minor, paru-us//), //plūrim-ī// “most” (//plūr-ēs, mult-ī//).
 +Compounds in //-dic-us// “saying” and //-uol-us// “willing” form their superlatives and comparatives from some corresponding participles //dīcens// and //uolens//: //male-dic-us// “slanderous”, //male-dīcent-issim-us//, //male-dīcent-ior//; //male-vol-us// “spiteful”, //male-uolent-issim-us//, //male-uolent-ior//. These words were analyzed with an allomorph of the comparative //-entiōr-// and the superlative //-entissim-us//, appropriate to compounds. Thus, some compounds in //-fic-us//, like //magni-fic-us// “grand”, have //magni-fic-entior// as comparative, and //magni-fic-entissim-us// as superlative. 
  
  
  
  
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 + 
  
-                                                     Declension of the comparative +\\ 
-Some adjectives, which cannot be combined with this comparative suffix, use the morphem magis “more”, which is syntagmatically independentmagis pius “more pious”, magis arduus “higher”, magis idoneus “more suitable”, etc. +[[:encyclopédie_linguistique:notions_linguistiques:morphologie:The morphology_of_classical Latin|Retour au plan]] ou  
-For other adjectives, the presence of the comparative morpheme involves necessarily an allomorph. Thus, the comparative of bon-us is mel-ior (not *bon-ior), of mal-us is pēior (=/pei-io:r/, pronounced [pejjor]) (not *mal-ior), of magn-us is māior (= /mai-io:r/, pronounced [majjor]) (not *magn-ior), of paru-us “small” is minor “less”, of mult-ī “many” is plūr-ēs “more”. +[[:dictionnaireThe morphology of classical latin5|Aller au § 5.]]       
- e. The morpheme of the superlative +
-It has normally the long form -issimus, like doct-issim-us “very learned”, cār-issim-us “dearest”, superlative of car-us “dear”, leu-issim-us “lightest”, superlative of leu-is, -e “light”, fēlic-issim-us “happiest”, superlative of felix “happy”. It can have the short form without -is, as in maximus “greatest” (= /mag-sim-us/, superlative of magn-us), pessim-us “worst” (= /pes-sim-us/), and in the lexemes ending in  /r/ or /l/: acer-rim-us (= /akr-sim-us/, with the syllabic realization of /r/ after a consonant and before a consonant, and the rhotacismus of /s/ between two elements [vocalicand after a morpheme border in [r]), pulcher-rimus, miser-rim-us, ueter-rim-us (regular superlative of uetus, ter-is, thus = /ueter-sim-us/) or facil-lim-us, difficil-lim-us, simil-lim-us,  disimil-lim-us, gracil-lim-us and humil-lim-us (it is the same phonological phenomenon of rhotacismus between two [vocalic] elements, but after a [vocalic] element which is an /l/. +
-Superlatives with maxime correspond to comparatives with magismaxime pius “very pious”, maxime arduus “most high”, and maxime idoneus “most suitable“. Irregular superlatives correspond to irregular comparativesoptim-us “best” (melior, bon-us), pes-sim-us “worst” (pē-ior, mal-us), maxim-us “greatest” (mā-ior, magn-us), minim-us “least” (minor, paru-us), plūrim-ī “most” (plūr-ēs, mult-ī). +
-Compounds in -dic-us “saying” and -uol-us “willing” form their superlatives and comparatives from some corresponding participles dīcens and uolens: male-dic-us “slanderous”, male-dīcent-issim-us, male-dīcent-ior; male-vol-us “spiteful”, male-uolent-issim-us, male-uolent-ior. These words were analyzed with an allomorph of the comparative -entiōr- and the superlative -entissim-us, appropriate to compoundsThus, some compounds in -fic-us, like magni-fic-us “grand”, have magni-fic-entior as comparative, and magni-fic-entissim-us as superlative.        +